Circular reaction where the people add to the crowd and the crowd fires up the people.
Danger of seeing only biological and overlooking social psychology issues such as de-individuation. Therefore they fight until one backs down, not to the death, just to establish who is stronger and who is weaker.
Studies of identical twins have frequently shown that if one twin exhibits aggressive behavior, the other often does so as well. Is this an over-simplification. This theory fails to explain premeditated aggression and bearing grudges.
They suggest that groups or sub-cultures come together because they have some sort of similarity, convergence then establish their own norms emergent norms. Eibesfeldt tried to identify human FAPS such as smiling to show non-aggression, however he found that our culture changes so quickly that cultural differences in signs can change more quickly than evolutionary patterns.
So individuals with lower levels of cortisol are less inhibited, more inclined to take risks and act impulsively Raine, Using old Danish police records Christiansen demonstrated that levels of criminality showed a stronger correlation between identical twins — with the same genes — than between dizygotic twins.
Children observe aggressive behavior in others, but how they act may depend on what the consequences of aggression were, particularly for those they use as role models.
Lorenz also suggested that much aggression was aimed at members of the same species, when competing for territory or sexual partners, but some animals are so fierce they could easily damage each other when fighting for dominance; Eg. Freud wrote about the build-up of sexual energy [Libido] and Lorenz applied a similar idea here.
Men will only fight if those who share the rewards also share the danger. Starting point for deindividuation Le Bon Mallick and McCandles found that people were much less aggressive when given a reason for the frustration.
This would support the FAP theory. Bushman does not agree with idea of Catharsis — says that aggression may lead to more aggression. Once it is out of the system the animal is less aggressive again till the level of Action Specific Energy has built up again.
Genetical Origins of Aggression. Societies will be more stable and peaceful if they have systems which allow clever or hardworking people to rise to the top. Mallick and McCandles found that people were much less aggressive when given a reason for the frustration. Stereotyped — behavior follows a certain pattern each time.
Dogs can been trained by hunters, army and police to act in particular ways. Humans are certainly capable of developing new ways of expressing aggression — such as cyber bullying.
Domestic violence in which a person is beaten by her or his spouse is a serious modern social problem. This suggests that testosterone masculinises androgen-sensitive neural circuits underlying aggression in the brain.
Holst  found that instead of getting it out of the systemaggressive action could feed back to make the person more angry and increasingly more aggressive. If a whole species has a similar level of aggression then it must have a genetic basis. Wright and Klee An electric shock experiment, similar to the classic Milgram study, found that disguised students were more likely to shock others — supports deindividuation.
So you will also draw upon your knowledge of biological factors, but you MUST show a link to genetics for each one. Humans are certainly capable of developing new ways of expressing aggression — such as cyber bullying.
Stanford Prison experiment saw students adopting to perceived roles. Social learning, acquisition of behaviors by watching others, is believed to function in learning aggressive behaviors.
Supporters seem much more likely to misbehave when their team is losing.
Other animals are not bright enough to work this out. A danger that media violence makes children more desensitised, more hardened to acts of violence in real life. Social-Psychological explanations of Aggression. Doob and Sears : Biological theories tend to overlook the effects of socialisation and other environmental issues, such as environmental stressors.
Therefore they fight until one backs down, not to the death, just to establish who is stronger and who is weaker. Stereotyped — behavior follows a certain pattern each time. Rude words and hand signs can change, so not evolutionary. Social Learning Theory & Aggression.
Observation. We watch other people, in particular children watch others a lot of the time. We can see how people react to certain situations; what they say, what they do, how they do/ say it.
A-level Psychology Revision Notes. Revision for AQA Psychology AS and A-Level Papers, including staightforward study notes and summaries of the relevant theories and studies, past papers, and mark schemes with example answers. Option 3 Aggression Forensic Psychology Addiction.
Past Papers. Assessment Resources. Aggression is behavior, verbal or physical, intended to physically hurt or harm in some other way another person or thing. Whether aggression is manifested by individuals or groups (including nations), it is the most destructive force in social relations and consequently an important social issue.
We watch other people, in particular children watch others a lot of the time. We can see how people react to certain situations; what they say, what they do, how they do/ say it. We can also observe the consequences of somebodies actions. If the observer imitates the behaviour we know that the.
These study notes cover the core topics relating to Aggression for A Level Psychology. Summary notes, videos, factsheets and past exam questions for AQA Psychology A-level Aggression topic.Psychology aggression notes